Hacking is a multifaceted concept that encompasses a wide range of activities, not all of which are malicious.

Hacking is commonly defined as the unauthorized access, manipulation, or exploitation of computer systems or networks

Ethical hacking is conducted with the consent of the system owner, typically as part of a comprehensive security assessment

Ethical hackers must ensure compliance with relevant legislation, such as the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) in the United States while performing penetration testing activities.